The ever escalating tension on the Indo-Pak borders and upgradation of operational response by the two neighbouring Nuclear powers has been a matter of grave concern for the international community in general and USA in particular.The latest Agreement between Director Generals Military Operations of the two countries pursuant to ‘frank’ talks to establish peace in the region therefore came as a breath of fresh air. In the joint statement they agreed to observe all the ceasefire agreements along the LoC and all other sectors from midnight of February 24/25. The joint statement aims to address each other’s core differences and concerns in the border areas. It is significant to note that the initiative for the talks was taken by the Pak DGMO. It was unprecedented.The international diplomatic and security communities perceive hectic US hand in bringing out this ‘mini miracle’. It is no secret that with Indo-China eye-ball to eye-ball confrontation in Ladakh,the looming large threat of joint Sino-Pak aggression against India and China declaring herself as party to Kashmir “dispute”. Pak, therefore will not and cannot afford to take a step like this without concurrence of Red China. And If US pressure indeed resulted in compelling Pakistan to take the initiative for the latest Agreement, it would be naïve to believe that no price has been exacted from us? Even though we have exposed Pakistan as epicentre of international terrorism, the US vested interest in Pak, Afghanistan and Central Asia would have compelled that country to exact some price from us too. Obviously, the ‘bargain’ needs to be accessed, analysed in depth and appropriate and effective national response crafted. The Security community must come forward and unconditionally engage with GOI in this crucial exercise.The history of Pak’s mischief in Jammu and Kashmir and shameless violations of CFL is public knowledge. These persistent and deliberate cross -border firings to target innocent civilians has been a prolonged nightmare for our border population who have suffered unnecessary loss of life and property including precious cattle.Beginning with 1947 invasion of Jammu and Kashmir, every Indo-Pak conflict ended with cease-fire agreement and hypocritical expression to maintain peace and promote amity. The Karachi Agreement of 1949 brokered by United Nations established a cease-fire line along the areas illegally occupied by Pakistan in Jammu and Kashmir to be monitored by UN Observers. A buffer zone of 500 yards on both sides of the Ceasefire line was ceated.The Indo-Pak war of 1965 was brought to end by Tashkent Agreement arranged by the Soviet Union. It made armies of both counries return to positions held prior to the outbreak of hostilities. In nut-shell, but for minor alterations of troop positions as a result of 1971 war which allowed Indian army to retain the strategic Hill feature 1962 over looking Kargil town, the original CFL holds till date.The Shimla Agreement made a significant change in the nomenclature of CFL which was thereafter to be Line of Control not Line of Actual Control. This change implied the official recognition of control over territories held by either side. The ambiguity about demarcated areas, however persists.Neither the Karachi Agreement nor the Shimla Agreement properly and finally defined the LOC. The 2003 agreement is not yet finalised.The comprehensive Shimla Agreement of second July 1972 signed Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her Pak counterpart ZA Bhutto after the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971 is the most significant sacred and comprehensive Treaty ( not an Agreement)which has been routinely violated by Pakistan both in letter and spirit.The enormity of PAK perfidy would be clear by a mere cursory glance at the figures of CFL violations for last four years,2018 2140 violations,2019 3479 violations,2020 5133 violations,2021(up to Feb 25) 591 violations,The Indo -Pak Treaty of 2nd July 1972 signed at Shimla by Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her Pak counterpart ZA Bhutto which gained the defeated Pakistan 93000 Prisoners of War comprehensively and specifically laid down policies and principles that will guide Indo Pak relations. The parts of Treaty relevant to this analysis reads, “The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved that the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the subcontinent so that both countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies to the pressing task of advancing the welfare of their people.In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:(i) That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the two countries.(ii) That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both shall prevent the organisation, assistance or encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peace and harmonious relations.(iii) That the prerequisite for reconciliation, good neighbourliness and durable peace between them is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful coexistence respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in each others internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit. That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedeviled the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means.(iv) That they shall always respect each others national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality.(ii) In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the ceasefire of 17 December 1971, shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognised position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this line.The above quoted clauses of the Shimla treaty address the genesis of Indo-Pak conflict. This has to be read with the latest Agreement in which ‘they agreed to observe all the ceasefire agreements along the LoC and all other sectors from midnight of February 24/25…’Going by pin violation of CFL”” is toast experience it is neither easy nor descaled irable to trust Pakistan unless that country takes some concrete measure in the spirit of Agreements. For instance, if threat or use of force is to be refrained from, Pakistan must with the;
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